Daily Archives for 2013年9月28日
Are you running an online business? Is it your present web host that is giving you jitters? Has it been a long time that you have been planning to move your instagram followers hack cheats present website to new host but fear that migrating WordPress installs is impossible? If yes then you need to think twice. When it comes to migration of WordPress, it not at all a difficult task provided you choose the right WordPress Migration Services. It is not intricate to migrate WordPress driven blog or website ?it is merely a collection of a database as well as files. Although it is always better to hire professionals for the task, here is an insight of how the process works.
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There is a time to be a consumer and a time to be a producer and at the moment, it seems you are veering too much on the http://www.maddenmobilehackcheats.club/ side of consumer. And it is not doing you any good because you look and you look AND YOU LOOK at what everyone else is doing…
You see their highlights…
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To refuse to hear your own wisdom and to think that who you are is not enough.
And it is.
It is enough for the work you are called to do…
And the work for you is unique.It is not the same as anything ever seen before. Yes there are common principles of audience gathering and invitation to partake of your offering but the nitty-gritty is up to you to come up with.
You have to believe enough in yourself to trust the little voice within you.
That is what all those people you admire do, so why not you?
You listen in to them, you read their writing and you start to wonder if there is even a space for you to do anything and there is, but you have to claim it.
Let me remind you again that the dreams and visions within you are not given you to taunt you nor to make you feel inadequate…NO!, they are given so that you fulfil them.
So that you bring your offering to the table…
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So, why delay?
Why keep waiting for some other revelation? Why keep doubting the wisdom within you?
It is just keeping you away from the abundance that is yours to tap into.
Blessed are you who act quickly on the inspiration in your heart; To you is granted the reward of a fulfilling life that impacts the world.Just imagine a world where everyone woke up and did the work they are best placed to do – Would we not end all the wars? Would we not figure out an end to world hunger? Would we not overpower those who think it is their right to make slaves of their fellow man?
This may seem way out there, it may seem like something that is beyond ‘little old you’ and yet, it starts with YOU.
It starts with you waking up because you do not know the effect that you will have on the next person.
While everyone waits for “somebody” to do something, you be the person that does YOUR thing knowing that you are a part of the great design of the universe. There is no mistake about you. You are here for a reason and that reason is delivered to you in the things that you dream of doing, in the things that you WANT to do.
So, begin there.
Start to produce whatever is in your heart to produce.Do not despise the day of small beginnings.
Create space for the dreams in your heart and click more details take the next step.
It will feel wishy-washy…
It will feel like no one needs to hear someone else saying the same old thing again…
It will feel weird to actually show up as who you are born to be…
And yet, the whispers in your heart are not going anywhere. And they get louder and louder with every passing day.
It is time for you to truly wake up.
Today is a great day to do it.
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Period of time: (1914-1978)
Alibhai Lalji is claimed in direction of include migrated against Junagadh, India click this site towards Mombasa, Kenya in just 1880 towards discover business office chances. His son Hussain in addition arrived versus India in just 1912, and resolved Sad to say within Mwanza. Later on upon, his son Hasan Ali and the unwind of the relatives connected Hussain inside 1920 within just Mwanza. They together ran a in general shop, identified as Alibhai Lalji & Sons, and subwaysurfershackcheatss designed regular enhancements.
Hasan Ali savored modernity inside of dressing and taking in. He was cautiously dressed and was quickly prominent in just a group of Asians. Thanks in the direction of his innovative preferences, he was nick referred to as as Hasan Ali Extravagant.
Amir Ali Extravagant was a single of the 5 sons of Hasan Ali Extravagant. He was born upon July 14, 1914 within Mombasa. He researched up in the direction of 4 groups and started off his business enterprise occupation at the age of 12 yrs within 1926. Loads of Europeans arrived browsing at his shop, permitting him towards choose up English. His consideration grew and he began finding out English at the age of 20 a long time. Amir Ali Extravagant married Anarbai Kassim upon January 14, 1937.
His physical appearance in just the arena of regional providers commenced as soon as he linked the cooperative societies within the Lake District metropolitan areas of Tanganyika. He too turned a member of the Provincial Council, and then the Final Council in just East Africa. Upon an celebration, an auction of land took vacation spot inside Ukumbi village. Some Ismailis with each other purchased a substantial plot for the Jamatkhana. He advisable them in direction of resell the plot toward the shopkeepers at a superior value, and the variance inside fiscal need to shift toward designing a fund toward develop the Jamatkhana. As a result, the jamat purchased a tidy total towards fulfill the expenditures of the structure of a prayer corridor.
He was fond of searching within the jungles in close proximity to Mwanza and the hills and vales of Sarangati ended up his favored grounds. Various days he experienced miraculously escaped in opposition to the lions and the cannibal tribes. Although Prince Aly Khan understood relating to his fondness for looking, he created distinctive outings toward Mwanza.
Inside of 1946, he frequented India with his brother-in just-legislation, Meghani, wherever he learned no workplace alternatives. He came within Karachi upon July 1947. As soon as the move of the partition of India was at its climax, he found out the Hindus inside a frenzy towards market almost everything and go away for India. Taking inspected the predicament, he took a alternative within nick of year toward settle down inside of Karachi a single thirty day period prior to the liberty of Pakistan. He accomplished a package towards order an iron and metallic re-rolling mill in opposition to a Hindu service provider and a godown entire of iron and metallic scrap at a throwaway charge. He intimated his household within Africa toward dispose off all passions and migrate quickly in the direction of Pakistan. This choice marked the setting up of a broad small business and an business empire he was in direction of establish within Pakistan earlier mentioned the afterwards several years. The early times inside of Karachi ended up seeking situations, however with challenging get the job done and choice, he prospered his organization.
He turned a enterprise magnate amazingly quickly inside Pakistan, performed a groundbreaking job within just the commercial growth of Pakistan and intended enormous contributions towards the socio-fiscal routines. In just 1954, he was conferred the 鎻檙der of Advantage?(Officer of the Purchase of Benefit of Republique Italy) towards the Italian authorities inside acceptance of his rewarding contribution within growth of exchange with Italy. In just 1956, he was far too a member of exchange delegation toward East Africa.
He was the Chairman of Pakistan Oil Refinery Ltd., Clean Jubilee Insurance plan Co. Ltd., Pakistan Chrome Mines, Metal Company of Pakistan Ltd., Crescent Jute Mills Ltd., Jessore Jute Mills Ltd., Peoples Jute Mills Ltd., Farooq Textile Mills Ltd., Commerce Financial institution Ltd., Pakistan Tourism, Professional Command Ltd., and many others.
He was too the Director of Karachi Fuel Co. Ltd., Sui Gasoline Transmission Co. Ltd., Pakistan Insurance policies Firm Ltd., Karachi Electrical Delivery Business Ltd., Pakistan Solutions Ltd., Pakistan Professional Credit rating & expense Business Ltd., Zeal Pak Cement Manufacturing facility Ltd., etcetera.
Aside from staying affiliated with import and export homes, the Govt of Pakistan experienced taken him up upon the Advisory Panel upon Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, and many others. Outside the house Pakistan, he was a member of the Advisory Council of the Worldwide Commercial Meeting and an Govt Committee Member of Pakistan Council, World Chamber of Commerce, and so on.
He was as well the to start with Chairman of Pak-Ismaili Multi-cause Cooperative Lifestyle, Platinum Jubilee Finance Company, Business Advertising and marketing Company, Pak-Ismailia Guides Ltd. He was furthermore just one of the founders of the periodical, 鎻憇maili Replicate?which he financed and available his personalized business office toward employ the service of it with cellular phone and other features.
Inside 1954, as a member of the Best Council for West Pakistan, he was actively affiliated with Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah. Ahead of the Platinum Jubilee, the Imam summoned a conference of the leaders and instructed them that the amount of money gathered for the jubilee was in direction of be used for the welfare of the jamat. He too received a hand-created letter of the Imam that he most well-liked the selection toward be applied inside of these kinds of a direction that the Ismailis master towards stand upon their individual toes and not develop into centered fiscally, or in a different way, upon all people. He at after responded in the direction of the letter and dedicated himself in direction of deliver out the Imam鎶?would like. He went forward in direction of kind a Distinctive Committee, of which he grew to become the Convenor, and labored out a practical programme in the direction of ascertain cooperative societies and suggested the natural environment up of the Platinum Jubilee Finance and Expense Business in the direction of aid the cooperative credit score societies at a very low focus cost of merely 2%. The proposal fulfilled Imam鎶?acceptance and the Business arrived into remaining within August, 1954, of which he was elected as its to start with Chairman. Subsequently, he was in addition elected the Chairman of Platinum Jubilee Cooperative Lender. Inside of reputation of his meritorious solutions, the Imam conferred on him the identify of Wazir upon July, 1955.
The Aga Khan Charitable Rely on arrived into lifestyle inside 1960, and he was its initial Chairman. Prince Sadruddin performed an considerable portion in just furnishing tips and partially funding this Ismaili rehabilitation job. 10 blocks of 24 residences each individual have been originally prepared in direction of rehabilitate the bad Ismaili households. A higher piece of land was figured out in just the barren community of Federal 鎻?Place, Karachi. Just before he retired, he noticed in direction of it that the Karimabad colony acquired an formal popularity with the development of a regional council.
His family鎶?benevolent fund arrived into life within just 1960 with a funds of Rs. 16,00,000/- acknowledged as the Extravagant Basis. He was its Chairman because its inception. This basis presented scholarships towards worthy college students. It additionally donated a hefty library in the direction of the Personnel University at Quetta.
The Ismailis of the Preferred Prosperity supplied an honour toward Queen Elizabeth inside Karachi inside February 1961. He represented them together with industrialists.
Inside of conclusion, he was the Chairman, the Operating Director and the Director of 36 in the direction of 40 products and services ahead of his loss of life, which include his particular multi-million relatives considerations of place of work, current market and mining passions, and regulated a in general function stress of virtually 4000 workforce. He was much too the Director and an Marketing consultant toward a couple of federal government and non-federal government enterprises.
His profession of management inside of a genuine truly feel started off as soon as the Imam demonstrated the Ismailia Federal Council for Pakistan upon March 21, 1961 and experienced the prominent honour of starting to be its to start with President. The top endeavor he took up was the framing of the charter for the jamat within Pakistan. He kept plenty of conferences and drew up a manageable constitutional structure. This hard work was his to start with main good results. For the duration of his period of time, the Imam frequented thrice Pakistan. The Imam in addition graciously authorised his invites 2 times in direction of remain at his bungalow, Aminar in just Karachi. The initially season inside 1964, and the moment season in just 1970 with Begum Salimah.
The Imam was hence content with his functions inside of building the Aga Khan Charitable Have faith in, and the Aga Khan III Basis techniques within Karachi that he was especially assigned towards do the flooring function for the Aga Khan Base inside Geneva, which he did, and which is currently a person of the best of its sort.
Within just resettlement of the Ismaili refugees against Burma, Varas Amir Ali鎶?well timed phase proved prosperous. As quickly as the irritation was said, he flew in the direction of Burma and fulfilled with the Ismaili leaders and labored out the changing of the Ismailis. He ready even further phase and flew in direction of Dacca and intended vital preparations, and the mission toward resettle the Burmese Ismaili refugees was worthwhile.
The birthday of the Hazar Imam was celebrated upon December 13, 1964 within a grand darbar at the Aga Khan Gymkhana, Karachi inside of the existence of around hundred thousand Ismaili, together with delegations against close to the world-wide. This one of a kind party would eternally continue to be carved inside the hearts of Ismailis, considering that the Imam individually graced the get together of his personalized birthday for the 1st period with his enthusiasts. The Ismailis were being submerged inside the ocean of mirth and pleasure. Upon that celebration, Varas Amir Ali Extravagant presented a helpful speech upon behalf of the Federal Council and reported, 鎻無 us, our superior Imam, on your own are a logo of reality and justice. We appear to be that it is all through your illuminating existence, regardless of whether by yourself are in just our midst or not, we progress in the direction of march upon the street toward salvation, achievements, rest and wealth. Inside of this articles age, each time our worldly joy and advantages just take manage of the human brain, our Imam鎶?frequent assist, forethought and text of knowledge toward comply with the spirit of Islam offer you us love this game website far more and non secular upliftment.?
Accepting the homage, the Imam stated, My pleasure at becoming with oneself upon this social gathering is deep and normal, all my queries, all my hopes and all my prayers are for your self.?
The Imam completed the cake-slicing rite upon the identical working day inside the night within just the existence of notable leaders at the bungalow of Varas Amir Ali Extravagant.
He laid the base of Platinum Jubilee Co-operative Housing Tradition Ltd. at Hyderabad upon Oct 4, 1964.
The very first at any time Global Ismaili Socio-Money Meeting was retained inside Karachi within just December 15, 1964. It was a landmark inside of the Ismaili historical past, consequently, he labored tough for its accomplishment. He was elected as the President of its Govt Board with Dewan Sir Eboo Pirbhai and Itmadi Ali Muhammad C. Padamsee as the Vice-Presidents.
Miss out on Naseem, the daughter of Varas Amir Ali Extravagant was married in the direction of Mr. Zulfikar Pyar Ali Khanbhai of Nairobi upon December 19, 1964 at Muslim Gymkhana, Karachi. The Imam graciously attended the romantic relationship and delivered an emerald toward the bride and a shawl in the direction of Varas Amir Ali Extravagant.
The Imam verified I.P.S. (Business Promoting Support) within just 1964, and he was generated its initially Chairman.
As the President of the Federal Council, he hosted receptions and dinners for some substantial personalities of the global, this sort of as Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II, Mr. John Foster Dulles, the Secretary of United Suggests, Malaysian Top Minister, Sheikh Zaki Yamani, Minister for oil and petroleum of Saudi Arabia, and so forth. Upon November 14, 1962, Sector Marshall Muhammad Ayub Khan, the President of Pakistan completed an opening rite of the Pakistan Oil Refinery Ltd. at Korangi, relating to 10 miles off Karachi, and then attended the evening meal programme at the property of Varas Amir Ali Extravagant with ministers and well known leaders.
The prestigious Standford Scientific tests Institute of the United Suggests appointed him a member of the govt committee. The business enterprise retains an once-a-year seminar, Whilst eminent company and industrialist magnates and economists of the international are invited in the direction of make talks upon monetary issues at world place. He experienced the singular honour in the direction of be invited towards Pakistan. He was additionally invited towards show up at conferences of the World Economical Fund at Washington.
His good quality of management received him common admiration, not in nevertheless exterior the neighborhood. He was usually style, sympathetic and a perfect philanthropist. He retired in opposition to the posting of President at the Federal Council for Pakistan inside of December 1972. The Imam showered on him with least complicated loving blessings for his outstanding expert services.
He dwelt in just Abu Dhabi considering that 1975, the place he was appointed Exceptional Consultant in the direction of Sheikh Faisal bin Sultan al-Karimi of Sharjah. He was confided towards effort out a program for some essential commercial jobs within North Yemen.
The final couple yrs he travelled completely inspite of remaining handicapped by means of a really serious cardiac problem. His spirit, braveness and means in direction of hard work have been a issue of consistent marvel for his spouse and children and mates. Virtually 2 weeks past in direction of his dying, he crafted really serious troubles within just his lungs and kidneys and was Very sick. He chosen toward be introduced house toward Karachi, and retained cheerful until eventually the closing working day each time he mentioned, 鎻梱 excursion dwelling is made up of started out.?
A pair months prior to his homeward trip, the Imam in just Paris luckily granted him a own visitors. Although he took depart, the Imam reported, 鎻?admire the path your self consist of been having difficulties. If there ended up even further people of your fortitude, the confront of the jamat could possibly distinction.?
He returned in the direction of Karachi upon August 10, 1978. His scenario shattered upon August 12, 1978. The medical professionals ended up not indeed if he would endure that evening. His spouse Varasiani Anarbai was concerned and experienced now telephoned all her young children overseas toward achieve Karachi. She advised her partner that, 鎻焗e little ones are coming house. I incorporate not instructed them how necessary your circumstance is. Will not your self hesitate until they occur? How would I encounter them if by yourself go away by now??Varas Amir Ali was inside of digital comma, still he nodded his brain, implying he would hesitate for the kids. Right after several several hours he opened his eyes, regained recognition. He breathed his final upon the night of August 13, 1978 when observing all his young children.
In the course of the unhappy death of Varas Amir Ali Extravagant, the Imam delivered immediately after telex-information in direction of Varasiani Anarbai Extravagant: –
I contain learnt with most important sorrow of the passing absent of your spouse Wazir Extravagant and ship towards by yourself and all the participants of your spouse and children my warmest and one of a kind and optimum affectionate paternal maternal loving blessings for bravery and fortitude inside your bereavement and for the everlasting rest and chill out of the soul of Vazir Extravagant. For 11 a long time the late Wazir preset an illustration of devotion and tough exertion for the jamat in just Pakistan within just his potential as President of the Federal Council and in the course of people a long time the jamat manufactured observe of the deserving breakthroughs a lot of which was because of in direction of the enormous individual hard work of your spouse. At a nationwide and world wide point the late Vazir was 1 of Pakistan鎶?utmost dependable owners and his passing absent is a deep decline towards his state, in the direction of the jamat and in the direction of me individually. By yourself and your loved ones are at this period of sorrow specifically inside my centre, issues and prayers. My spouse is made up of primarily requested me toward notify your self how significantly she much too participates within just your grief.
© Peter Muir 2005
No part of this article may be repoduced without the consent of the author.
In this paper I explore that the notion, based on my own teaching practice, that regular attendance on Community Outreach Music Programs (COMPs) by music students can be of great benefit to the learning of their musical instruments. I will begin with a general description of a typical COMP.
The Musical Outreach Program at Green Briar Retirement Community
The Institute for Music and Health has been running a COMP since January 2000 at Green Briar Retirement Community in Millbrook, NY. Residents are mostly fairly high functioning seniors, although most have medical problems, many displaying early symptoms of Alzheimer’s or senile dementia. A typical outreach session lasts about seventy minutes. The IMH generally brings at five volunteers to an outreach, and often more than ten. The number of residents attending the outreach usually averages around twenty.
The basic approach is as follows. We largely sing older style Tin Pan Songs which are familiar to residents. Helpers encourage residents to join in with the singing and dancing/moving with them wherever appropriate. This is not a formal performance in any usual sense. On the contrary, the more informal and relaxed the atmosphere, the more active residents tend to become; and the more active the residents, the longer-lasting the benefits of the music. The effect of the music-making is enhanced by the volunteers engaging as directly and as interactively with the residents as possible, holding hands, making eye contact, etc. The outreaches are largely musically unaccompanied, though instruments are used in certain situations discussed below.
It is not the purpose of this article to discuss the benefits of such sessions on residents, which, if done correctly, and with the right intention, are profound. I am instead interested in the effect on the volunteers, specifically on how such outreaches can benefit the playing of those learning instruments (even though the outreach center round singing, not playing).
At the time of writing, we have only been taking our students on a limited basis to Green Briar, and though the first results are highly encouraging and we plan to extend the program, the present discussion is basically a position paper more theoretical/philosophical in approach than based on experimental results. I will begin by discussing, and placing in its historical context, the current state of mainstream instrumental pedagogy as it exists in America, and, as far as I am aware, most of the Western world, before going on to explore how musical outreaches can help counteract a certain imbalance inherent in traditional musical pedagogy.
Traditional Music Instrument Pedagogy
Although it has roots that are much older, instrumental music teaching as we know it today is really a product of the nineteenth century. The revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism brought with it major changes in the dissemination of art music in Europe and North America. The new approach was most typically reflected in the rise of the public concert which came into its own in the Romantic era. The symbol of this was the touring instrumental virtuoso, such as Paganini on the violin and Liszt on the piano, who were, along with successful operatic artists, the musical superstars of the day. Romanticism glorified these instrumental performers in a way that they never had been before. In doing so, the performers became wealthy and famous, reaching through their incessant touring, fine promotion, and ear-catching pyrotechnics, a much wider public than had ever been available to audiences of earlier times.
As instrumental virtuosity acquired a new prominence, pedagogy rose to the fore. Fuelled by new technology that dramatically lowered the cost, and thus accessibility, of sheet music, and a growing, musically literate middle-class thirsty for cultural improvement, pedagogy became for the first time big business in the nineteenth century. Hundreds of composers created pedagogical material for almost every type of instrument www.kingofthieveshackscheats.com/generator/ that ranged from the mechanics of Czerny’s exercises, to the mastery of Chopin’s etudes. Emphasis was placed on the technical: the higher qualities of a performance—expression, interpretation and so forth—could really only be effectively added after the work had been mechanically mastered. What is known as the “Once More with Feeling” school.
Once in place, this philosophy dominated the pedagogical landscape. It is strikingly represented by Figure 1, an illustration from an article by Aubertine Woodward Moore entitled, appropriately enough, “From Mechanical Foundation to Artistic Triumph,” which appeared in the American mainstream music education journal The Etude in 1918. The “Mechanical Foundation” of the title is represented by heavy-duty industrial machinery at the bottom of the hill, while “Artistic Triumph” is depicted at the top by a castle. Note that higher playing qualities (“phrasing,” “expression,” “interpretation”) occur near the top of the hill, while the drudge aspects of practice (“industry,” “daily exercises,” “scales”) are placed near the bottom. One other point. As you follow the zig-zag pathway up the hill, you will see it becomes increasingly less populated. This is a surprisingly honest, if perhaps unconscious, statement of a design flaw in the entire system: most students give up their instruments. In a philosophy that views learning an instrument as—here, literally—an uphill struggle, only a few get to the summit. And when getting to the summit is seen as the only worthwhile goal of the venture—the term “Artistic Triumph” clearly sells it as a winner-takes-all affair—not getting to the summit is viewed (by both student and teacher) as a failure. In this curiously Darwinian view of education only the fittest survive. The rest fall by the wayside.
It would be naïve to suggest that nothing has changed in music pedagogy since this article appeared. Mainstream pedagogical methods are now somewhat less technically oriented and fearsomely hegemonic than was once the case. What has, I believe, spurred this changed more than anything else is the weakening hold of classical music in Western societies and the corresponding rise of American vernacular music (jazz, blues, rock, etc.) in the twentieth century, whose spectacular popularity through its dissemination in mass-culture has displaced classical music as the principle musical lingua franca of Western, and, more recently, of global society. Consequently, when the average child at the beginning of the twenty-first century decides to take up an instrument he is more likely to want to learn Beatles than Beethoven.
While the music profession has accommodated, it has only done so only grudgingly. Read through old editions of any mainstream pedagogical journal such as The Etude, you will see how conservative it is, how protective of “good” (i. e. classical) music against the perceived threat of popular styles. The overall impression is that the democratization of repertoire and broadening of playing styles in music teaching is a thoroughly “bottom-up” revolution, only reluctantly accepted by the old guard. This has various class implications which I do not want to pursue here, except to say, that this conservatism in music teaching is one reflected by society as a whole: all vernacular styles have, almost by definition, started off as working class music, and have usually gained general acceptance only after tremendous resistance from above.
The reluctance of music pedagogy to accept new styles is symptomatic of a deeper problem. For while the focus of music teaching has shifted healthily away from “the few who may become the professional musicians of tomorrow” to “the many who want to participate in music,” the philosophy of music teaching has not fundamentally changed: it has simply softened its hard edges to accommodate the masses. A student learning an instrument still expects his teacher to focus on the technical, just as he would have done a century ago. The emphasis is still on practicing scales, playing in tune, using the correct fingering. Of course, there are individual exceptions, but this is still the general culture.
Let me make a distinction between Music—capital M—and the music—small m. By using the upper case, I refer to the higher qualities that make music important and vital: creativity, expression and interpretation, the qualities that are last to be applied in traditional pedagogy. By the small m, I refer to the lower, technical, qualities. A child who takes up an instrument does so as a means of higher expression, in other words, Music. Instead the focus is on the technical, the music. It is not surprising that so many children give up their instruments.
We can summarize all this by saying the starting point in music pedagogy is “getting it right”: in tune, right fingers, right notes. This inevitably has the effect of making the student continually focus on, and worry about, this aspect, i. e., the music and not the Music. It creates a climate of fear, where the student is encouraged to constantly judge himself for his mistakes, and to assume that others—initially his teacher, later an audience—are doing the same.
The result of this is an unhealthy inwardness on the part of the musician. He is focusing on himself in his performance, worrying about how he is being judged: “How am I doing?” “What do they think of me?”. This self-consciousness is the start of all stage-fright and is completely counterproductive—everyone performs worse when nervous. Therefore we are left with a paradox: overemphasis on technique ultimately undermines technique. The teaching of musical instruments should be done in a way to lessen self-consciousness; instead it exacerbates it, thereby undercutting what it is trying to achieve.
The Benefits of Community Music Outreach Programs for Music Students
If the central problem of music instrument teaching is the self-consciousness it engenders, its solution is the adoption of other-consciousness, to encourage the pixel gun 3d hack student to put his attention on the other rather than on his self. The Latin for “self” is ego; for “other” it is alter. We replace egotism with altruism.
Thus the student is encouraged to direct his music to someone when he plays. In its simplest form, this process is purely mental, i. e., just imagining the person who is being played to. But the experience is much more powerful if the person is in the room with the player. This is where musical outreach in places like seniors’ homes is so valuable, for it gives a physical reality to the process of directing out with the music.
However, there is more involved than this. The outreach situation is particularly helpful for encouraging this attitude on the part of the visiting musician, far more so than say giving a solo at a concert, which, of course, is much more likely to aggravate a student’s performance fears rather than alleviate them. There are several reasons why an outreach is the optimum situation for encouraging musical altruism.
In the first place, seniors in a home are far less critical than a concert audience tends to be. So many seniors in establishments such as Green Briar are lonely and depressed. Visitors and music-making are therefore nearly always welcome. Furthermore, experience shows that as the physical/mental condition of the residents deteriorates they become needier of music, and thus are ever less critical of what they hear.
Second, the outreach is communal in nature. This takes pressure off the individual student and thus helps alleviate performance anxiety, as working in groups is easier than performing solo. Perhaps even more important than this, in an outreach the audience is taking part as well as the performers, singing along and dancing/moving. This creates a climate of comforting informality for the student. After all, if the seniors, who in most instances have had no musical training, are not self-conscious about their involvement with the music, why should the student be? In fact, an outreach is not really a performance situation in the usual sense with a clear demarcation between performers and audience. Most times boundaries are blurred. At Green Briar we have even had situations where the audience/performer relationship is reversed, when a resident will enthusiastically lead us in a song he knows better than we do!
The third difference between and outreach and a concert is that the student is encouraged to relate to his “audience” as individuals. In a concert, the audience is anonymous to the performer. He will not know most of the listeners. Even if he does, it is extremely hard to relate to all of them at one time. There are too many, and in any case the gulf between the audience and the performer in a standard concert set-up scarcely helps. Often in a theater, because of bright stage lighting, it is impossible for the performer even to see his audience, much less to relate to them. In an outreach situation like the one at Green Briar there are no such difficulties, and where visits are on a regular basis, the residents become well-known to the volunteers, and vice versa. This, along with the smaller numbers, and informality of the setting, make it easy for students to relate to residents. To maximize this, we recommend close and direct contact wherever possible: move as close to the resident during the music-making as he/she will allow; take their hands; look into their eyes (this last is particularly important).
Lastly, outreaches are geared around singing, not around the student’s instrument. This is important for two reasons. First, we have found that residents tend to stop singing when instruments are used. Instead, they start to view the situation as a performance, and a formal distance is created between performers and audience, which works against creating a climate of altruism. Second, singing requires less effort on the part of the student than playing. Like the residents, the student can “just sing.” When playing his instrument on the other hand, he is less spontaneous as he is constantly worrying about whether he has the right note, if it is in tune, etc.
These four factors—the residents’ comparatively uncritical approach, king of thieves cheat the communal aspect, relating to the “audience” as individuals, and basing the outreach around singing—create a unique environment where the student is encouraged to use his music altruistically.
Translating Outreach Philosophy into Instrumental Playing
Attending regular musical outreaches is, however, only a first stage, for the ultimate goal is to translate the altruistic experience of outreach into the student’s instrumental playing. This happens to an extent by osmosis. As the student becomes more altruistically inclined with the outreaches, the beneficial effects will become generalized to all his music-making. Ultimately the aim is to see all performance, indeed all music-making, as an outreach.
This process can be catalyzed by gradually introducing instrumental playing at the outreach. I give an example from my recent experience. A sixteen year-old trumpet student is extremely gifted, but shy and self-conscious about his music-making on his instrument. He started to come regularly to musical outreaches, including Green Briar, with his father, who is himself highly musical and encouraging of his son adopting an altruistic approach with his music-making. At first the son was reluctant to do anything other than sing. As his musical identity strengthened through the outreaches, however, he gradually became more confident, although he was still unwilling to play. There was even an in-between stage when he would bring his trumpet to the outreach but not play it! Eventually he did start to play, much to the delight of the residents. Recently, he has started also playing solos in concerts. When he plays, he does so with remarkable confidence, with absolutely no trace of stage-fright. As a result his playing is extremely creative and expressive. In other words, the outreach process has encouraged him to make Music rather than music, and from this point of view, he is exceptional.
When the altruistic attitude developed through musical outreach is integrated into the student’s playing, what are the effects? There are several.
1. Reducing self-criticism in the student naturally makes the whole music-learning process far more enjoyable and satisfying.
2. Outreaches show the student that his music-making can have a positive effect on an audience. This gives his playing a whole extra meaning that does not normally result from regular pedagogy.
3. Students who attend outreaches on a regular basis tend to develop excellent aural skills because of the emphasis on singing. This can be reinforced by getting to them to play the songs they sing at the outreach on their instruments without using written music.
4. The altruistic attitude improves technique. That is the opposite side of the paradox discussed earlier that prioritizing technique in music-teaching ultimately undermines technique by encouraging a self-critical mindset. By contrast, when the student stops thinking self-critically, he is able to give of his best in every sense, including the technical.
5. In the most general sense, the general adoption of an altruistic attitude is a most desirable goal in the education and the social development of the young.
The process explored in this paper—attending regular musical outreaches and applying the experience to the playing of the student’s instrument—is well described in the following testimonial from a fifteen-year-old clarinet student at Ravensong Studio who attended a series of music outreaches at Green Briar:
When I got [to the outreach] for the first time, I realized how scared I was. We entered a small, sunny room with a fish tank, a rack of magazines, and a view of a dining room that was much too yellow. There was a circle of old ladies and a few old men in chairs. . . I sang softly in a corner, feeling like I had been thrown without warning into cold water. Harsh as it seemed at the time, it worked. I slowly lost my shyness as I realized that these people were not here to judge us. Once I forgot to worry about being right, I became a thousand times more expressive. I thought if I could apply this new-found freedom to my not-so-shabby clarinet playing, how much better I would be. So I slowly began to change. I took more risks and tried to concentrate on the meaning of the song, the emotions it was intended to portray, rather than just notes on the page. I had begun to grasp the purpose of music. It was suddenly a lot easier and a lot more fun. . .I have improved as a musician and have become a more sensitive person.
This statement raises an important issue which is that outreaches can at first be an intimidating experience for many students. For one thing, those who learn instruments are often not happy to sing. There are various reasons for this, but, basically if a student is self-conscious about his playing, he is likely to be about his singing also. All the more reason to go on the outreach! The experience of many students is like that of the student in the testimonial: shyness, even fear, at first, but gradually gaining confidence as the climate of the outreach becomes more familiar. Another reason for students being intimidated on outreach is that the deteriorated condition of some of the residents in a home can be frightening at first, although, as the students begin to relate intimately with residents, this situation improves. We do find students who refuse to go on outreach for these reasons, but most are ultimately amenable. This is particularly true of younger children who are in every sense less self-conscious than those in their teens.
1. February 1918, p. 93.
2. Joyce Cameron, “The Role of Self-Esteem in Learning,” in Proceedings of the National Conference of Piano Pedagogy 1990-91 (Los Angeles: National Conference of Piano Pedagogy, 1991), 88.
3. Some recent work, for example, has stressed the generally therapeutic nature of altruism; See Richard L. Curwin, “The Healing Power of Altruism,” Education Leadership, November 1993, 36-39; also John Diamond, M. D., The Veneration of Life: Through the Disease to the Soul (Bloomingdale, IL: Enhancement Books, 2000),4; The latter author has also extensively discussed the use of altruism in music.; See Life Enhancement through Music (Bloomingdale, IL: Enhancement Books, in press), passim.
4. Undated testimonial of Margeret McGovern in possession of author.
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